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The pH electrode is a sensor with a glass membrane sensitive to the activity of the H+ ion. Transform this activity into a proportional electrical signal. This electrical signal is transformed into pH units by means of a digital instrument (pH meter).

The electrodes marketed by Giorgio Bormac srl are produced by an important Swiss manufacturer and are synonymous with precision and quality.
The line of electrodes marketed includes a wide range of electrodes suitable for the most varied applications ranging from the food sector to the chemical industry, from environmental analyzes to quality control, they are suitable for both laboratory measurements and complex industrial processes.

Contrary to what is sometimes thought, there is no universal electrode, but there are different electrodes specific to each application.
The choice of a suitable electrode is essential for the quality of the measurement itself and for the life of the electrode, the use of an unsuitable electrode can lead to measurement errors and significantly reduce the life of the electrode.

The pH sensor consists of 2 electrodes, one for measurement and one for reference.
The measuring electrode has a glass membrane, sensitive to the activity of H + ions.

The reference electrode is built with a silver wire coated with silver chloride immersed in a liquid or semi-solid electrolyte.

The advancement of technology has made it possible to combine the 2 electrodes into a single body, the sensor built with this technology is called a monotubular combined electrode.

The electrode, during the measurement phase, must operate in a vertical position, with the side filling cap open (only for electrodes with rechargeable electrolyte) with the membrane and the lateral ceramic diaphragm entirely immersed in the sample. Once immersed, it must be shaken for a few seconds and wait for the stability of the measurement. Once the measurement is finished, wash the electrode with distilled water, dry with paper, without rubbing, and store it in the storage solution. It is important not to store the electrode in distilled water, as it makes the measurement very slow and irreparably damages the electrode.

The pH electrode is an active sensor, it generates a potential, therefore it exhausts its effectiveness over time. Indicatively, the average life of an electrode is from one to three years, at room temperature, while at high temperatures it drastically reduces.
Another factor that determines the life of the electrode is the aggressiveness of the sample in which it is immersed, the opposite extremes of measurement (pH 0-2 and pH 12-14) reduce the life and efficiency of the measuring membrane.